What is P-dichlorobenzene?
Para-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene or p-DCB, is an organic compound with a powerful, mothball-like odor. When found in public or private drinking water systems, the colorless or white crystalline solid must be quickly removed to prevent potential health complications and upper respiratory tract issues.
What Is 1,4 Dichlorobenzene Used For?
1,4-Dichlorobenzene is mainly used as a pesticide and insecticide. The organic compound is used as a disinfectant in public and private restrooms. It is also used as a moth repellent in commercial and residential settings. P-DCB plays a significant role in the control of insects in farms.
It is used to fumigate soil, disease control, and control soil-borne pests such as nematodes. Despite its usefulness, it is essential to use p-DCB responsibly, as it can cause carcinogenic effects, human health effects, causing cancer, serious eye irritation, and environmental effects because these are toxic substances. Therefore, its use is regulated in many countries.
p-Dichlorobenzene is also used as a chemical intermediate in manufacturing various products such as dyes, air fresheners, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals. It can also be used as a solvent for other organic compounds. However, due to its potential toxic fumes, there is ongoing research to find occupational safety and health and more sustainable alternatives to p-DCB in various applications.
How Is P-Dichlorobenzene Produced?
P-Dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) is typically produced by the chlorination of benzene in the presence of a catalyst such as iron or aluminum chloride. This reaction leads to a mixture of isomers, including p-DCB, which can be separated and purified through distillation or other methods.
The purity of the final product can vary depending on the intended use, with higher purity grades typically required for specific applications such as pharmaceuticals or electronic chemicals. Overall, the production of p-DCB requires careful handling and control to ensure both the quality of the final product and the safety of the workers involved in the process.
How Does P-Dichlorobenzene Get into Your Drinking Water?
P-DCB can get into your drinking water through improper disposal and storage of the chemical compound in an industrial chemicals factory. These hazardous chemicals may leak into groundwater while stored at the warehouse. After heavy rainfall, chemical discharge can get into private wells and public water systems.
What are the Health Risks Associated with P-Dichlorobenzene?
Individuals exposed for years to p-dichlorobenzene-contaminated drinking water may experience health issues such as anemia, kidney, liver or spleen damage, and blood problems. The longer you are exposed to the contaminant, the more health problems you’ll likely experience.
How Common is P-Dichlorobenzene in Water?
The contaminant is common in groundwater near industrial chemical factories due to improper storage and waste management. Improper storage and disposal of these chemical hazards can contaminate the surrounding environment, including nearby water sources. Additionally, p-DCB can persist in soil and water for long periods and accumulate in the food chain, potentially causing harm to aquatic organisms and humans who consume contaminated fish or shellfish.
The extent of 1,4-DCB contamination in water can vary widely depending on the location and proximity to industrial activities. In some areas, high levels of 1,4-DCB have been found in groundwater and surface water, posing a significant risk to human health and the environment. To address this issue, regulations and monitoring programs have been implemented to limit the release of p-DCB.
What is the EPA’s Standards for P-Dichlorobenzene in Drinking Water?
The Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum Containment Level Goal (MCLG) for the contaminant is 0.075 mg/L or 75. The MCLG is a non-enforceable health-based goal set by the EPA to protect public health. It is not a legally enforceable standard but rather a guideline to assist in developing regulations.
The EPA also sets an enforceable drinking water standard called the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), which for p-dichlorobenzene is set at 0.075 mg/L. Public water systems must comply with the MCL and ensure that p-dichlorobenzene levels in drinking water do not exceed this limit.
What is the Best Reduction Media for Removing P-Dichlorobenzene from Drinking Water?
The use of the combination of granular activated carbon and packed tower aeration can remove the contaminant below the EPA’s MCLG. Water filter systems like AquaOx’s whole house water filter system are designed specifically to eliminate dangerous contaminants from your drinking water.
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How Does Granular Activated Carbon Filter Out P-Dichlorobenzene?
Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbs contaminants such as P-dichlorobenzene from water as it passes through the filter. GAC is a highly porous material with a large surface area that attracts and traps organic compounds like P-dichlorobenzene.
The carbon is positively charged, and as water flows through it, the negatively charged P-dichlorobenzene molecules are attracted to the carbon and attached to its surface. This adsorption process removes the contaminant from the water and effectively reduces its concentration.
The effectiveness of GAC in removing P-dichlorobenzene and other contaminants depends on factors such as contact time, carbon bed depth, and water flow rate.
Chemical Names:1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE; P-Dichlorobenzene; 106-46-7; Paradichlorobenzene; Para-Dichlorobenzene; ParacideMolecular Formula:C6H4Cl2Molecular Weight:146.998 g/molInChI Key:OCJBOOLMMGQPQU-UHFFFAOYSA-NSubstance Registry:FDA UNIISafety Summary:Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS)
Paradichlorobenzene is a synthetic, white crystalline solid practically insoluble in water and soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide, benzene, alcohol and acetone. It is used primarily as a space deodorant in products such as room deodorizers, air freshener, urinal and toilet bowl blocks, and as an insecticide fumigant for moth control.
When p-dichlorobenzene white-colored liquid is heated to decomposition, toxic gases and vapors (such as hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide) are released. The primary route of potential human exposure to this compound is inhalation. It has a flash point of 150 degrees and a boiling point of 345 degrees.
Acute inhalation exposure to p-dichlorobenzene can result in coughing and breathing difficulties. Breathing high levels of this chemical exposure can cause headaches, dizziness and liver damage. Contact with p-dichlorobenzene can cause mild irritation in eyes, leading to burning and tearing. It is reasonably anticipated to be a possible human carcinogen. (NCI05)Source: NCItRecord Name: ParadichlorobenzeneURL: https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&ns=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C44297Description: NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) provides reference terminology for many systems. It covers vocabulary for clinical care, translational and basic research, and public information and health administration activities.